Miniature Pinscher Standard

The Miniature Pinscher originated in Germany where terrier-like breeds known as "pinschers" have been used as ratters for at least 300 years. It is thought that the Miniature Pinscher evolved from breeding small specimens of the German smooth-haired pinscher possibly crossed to the Italian Greyhound and the smooth Dachshund. It is not, as some believe, the miniature version of the Doberman Pinscher, although its clean lines, coloring, and general activity are remarkably similar. The Miniature Pinscher was a recognized breed in Germany many years before the Doberman was developed. In Germany the breed is often called the Reh Pinscher because of its resemblance to the Roe deer, a small deer that is said to abound in the forests of the Rhineland.
The breed standard was first recorded in the German Stud Book in 1880 and was officially recognized by the Pinscher-Schnauzer Klub in Germany in 1895. Undoubtedly the little dog was very popular in its country of origin; when it was first shown at the Stuttgart show in 1900, there were ninety-three Miniature Pinschers in competition.
The Miniature Pinscher was first brought to the United States in 1920, and that country is credited with much of the breed's development. Since the organization of the Miniature Pinscher Club of America in 1929, the breed has become extremely popular on this continent both in the United States and Canada.
Its progress has been somewhat slower in the United Kingdom, probably due to the ban on ear cropping. It has taken breeders some years to breed dogs whose ear size and placement were in pleasing balance with the rest of the head. One of the Miniature Pinscher's most attractive characteristics is its high-stepping "hackney" gait, which would seem to verify the fact that somewhere in its ancestry the Italian Greyhound can be found.
In Canada the first Miniature Pinschers were registered in The Canadian Kennel Club Stud Book for the years of 1937-1938.

Official Breed Standard for the Miniature Pinscher

General Appearance: The Miniature Pinscher originated in Germany and named the Reh Pinscher due to his resemblance in structure and animation to a very small species of deer found in the forests. This breed is structurally a well-balanced, sturdy, compact, short-coupled, smooth-coated toy dog. He is naturally well groomed, proud, vigorous and alert. The natural characteristics traits which identify him from other toy dogs are his precise Hackney gait, his fearless animation, complete self-possession, and his spirited presence. Faults: Structurally lacking in balance, too long or short-coupled, too coarse or too refined (lacking in bone development causing poor feet and legs), too large or too small, lethargic, timid or dull, shy or vicious, low in tail placement and poor in action (action not typical of the breed requirements). Knotty overdeveloped muscles.

Size: Desired height 11 - 11.5 in. (28-29 cm) at the withers. A dog of either sex measuring under 10 in. (25 cm) or over 12.5 in. (32 cm) shall be disqualified.

Coat and Colour: Coat smooth, hard and short, straight, and lustrous, closely adhering to and uniformly covering the body. Colour a) Solid red or stag red. b) Lustrous black with sharply defined tan, rust-red markings on cheeks, lips, lower jaw, throat, twin spots above eyes, and chest, lower half of forelegs, inside of hind legs and vent region, lower portion of hocks and feet. Black pencil stripes on toes. c) Solid brown or chocolate with rust-red yellow markings. Faults: Thin, too long, dull coat; upstanding coat; curly coat; dry coat; area of various thickness or bald spots. Any colour other than listed; very dark or sooty spots.

Head: In correct proportion with the body. From top: Tapering, narrow with well-fitted but not too prominent foreface which should balance with the skull. No indication of coarseness. From front: Skull appears flat, tapering forward towards the muzzle. Muzzle itself strong rather than fine and delicate, and in proportion to the head as a whole; cheeks and lips small, taut and closely adherent to each other. Teeth in perfect alignment and apposition. From side: Well balanced with only a slight drop to the muzzle, which should be parallel to the top of the skull. Nose black only (with the exception of chocolates, which may have a self-coloured nose). Eyes full, slightly oval, almost round, clear, bright and dark, even to a true black; set wide apart and fitted well into the sockets. Ears well set and firmly placed, upstanding (when cropped, pointed, and carried erect in balance with the head). Faults: Too large or too small for the body, too coarse or too refined, pinched and weak in foreface, domed in skull, too flat and lacking in chiseling, giving a vapid expression. Nose any colour other than black (with the exception of chocolates which may have a self-coloured nose). Jaws and teeth overshot or undershot. Eyes too round and full, too large, bulging, too deep-set or set too far apart; or too small, set too close (pig eyes). Light-coloured eyes not desirable. Ears poorly placed, low-set hanging ears (lacking in cartilage) which detract from head conformation. (Poorly cropped ears if set on head properly and having sufficient cartilage should not detract from head points, as this would be a man-made fault and automatically would detract from general appearance).

Neck: Proportioned to head and body. Slightly arched, gracefully curved, clean and firm, blending into shoulders, length well balanced, muscular and free from a suggestion of dewlap or throatiness. Faults: Too straight or too curved; too thick or too thin; too long or short; knotty muscles; loose, flabby or wrinkled skin.

Forequarters: Shoulders clean, sloping with moderate angulation, co-coordinated to permit the true action of the Hackney pony. Strong bone development and small clean joints. As viewed from the front straight and upstanding; elbows close to body, well knit, flexible yet strong with perpendicular pasterns. Faults: Shoulders too straight, too loose, or too short and overloaded with muscles. Forelegs bowed or crooked, weak pasterns, feet turning in or out, loose elbows.

Body: From top: Compact, slightly wedge-shaped, muscular with well-sprung ribs. From Side: Back level or slightly sloping towards the rear. Length of males equal height at withers. Females may be slightly longer. Fore chest well developed and full, moderately broad. Depth of brisket, the base line of which is level with the points of the elbows; short and strong in loin with belly moderately tucked up to denote grace in structural form. From Rear: High tail-set; strong, sturdy upper shanks, with croup slope at about 30 degrees; vent opening not barreled. Faults: From top-too long, too short, too barreled, lacking in body development. From side-too long, too short, too thin, or too fat, hips higher or considerably lower than the withers, lacking depth of chest, too full in loin, sway back, roach back or wry back. Fore chest and spring of rib too narrow (or too shallow and underdeveloped). From rear-quarters too wide or too close to each other, overdeveloped, barreled vent, underdeveloped vent, too sloping croup, tail-set low.

Hindquarters: Well-knit muscular quarters set wide enough apart to fit into a properly balanced body. All adjacent bones should appear well angulated with well-muscled thighs or upper shanks, with clearly well-defined stifles, hocks short, set well apart turning neither in nor out, while at rest should stand perpendicular to the ground and upper shanks, lower shanks and hocks parallel to each other. Feet cat-like, toes strong, well arched and closely knit with deep pads and thick blunt nails. Faults: Too narrow, under muscled or over muscled, too steep in croup. Too thick or thin bone development, large joints, spreading flat feet. Thin underdeveloped stifles, large or crooked hocks, loose stifle joints.

Tail: Set high, held erect, docked to 1/2 - 1 inch (1-3 cm). Faults: Set too low, too thin, drooping, hanging or poorly docked.

Faults: Structurally lacking in balance, too long or short coupled, too coarse or too refined (lacking in bone development causing poor feet and legs), too large or too small, lethargic, timid or dull, shy or vicious, low in tail placement and poor in action (action not typical of the breed requirements). Knotty overdeveloped muscles. Thin, too long, dull coat; upstanding coat; curly coat; dry coat; area of various thickness or bald spots. Any colour other than listed; very dark or sooty sports. Head too large or too small for the body, too coarse or too refined, pinched and weak in foreface, domed in skull, too flat and lacking in chiseling, giving a vapid expression. Nose any colour other than black (with the exception of chocolates which may have a self-coloured nose). Jaws and teeth overshot or undershot. Eyes too round and full, too large, bulging, too deep-set or set too far apart; or too small, set too close (pig eyes). Light-coloured eyes are not desirable. Ears poorly placed, low-set hanging ears (lacking in cartilage) which detract from head conformation. (Poorly cropped ears if set on the head properly and having sufficient cartilage should not detract from head points, as this would be a man-made fault and automatically would detract from general appearance). Neck too straight or too curved; too thick or too thin; too long or short; knotty muscles; loose, flabby or wrinkled skin on neck. Shoulders too straight, too loose, or too short and overloaded with muscles. Forelegs bowed or crooked, weak pasterns, feet turning in or out, loose elbows. Body from top-too long, too short, too barreled, lacking in body development. Body from side- too long, too short, too thin or lacking depth of chest, too full in loin, sway back, roach back or wry back. Fore chest and spring of rib too narrow (or too shallow and underdeveloped). Body from rear-quarters too wide or too close to each other, overdeveloped, barreled vent, underdeveloped vent, too sloping croup, tail-set low. Hindquarters too narrow, under muscled or over muscle, too steep in croup, too thick or thin bone development, large joints, spreading flat feet. Thin underdeveloped stifles, large or crooked hocks, loose stifle joints. Tail-set too low, too thin, drooping, hanging or poorly docked.

Disqualifications: Thumb marks or any area of white on feet or fore chest exceeding 1/2 inch (1 cm) in its longest dimension. A dog of either sex measuring under 10 in. (25 cm) or over 12.5 in. (32 cm) shall be disqualified.